Jade in Xia Dynasty
Time:(From about 2100 B.C. to 1600 B.C. )
Location of Capital: Western part of Henan and the Northern part of Shaanxi.
Emperors: 16 emperors, including Qi, Tai Kang, Shao Kang Zhongxing, Kong Jia and Jie and so on.
Replaced by: Shang Dynasty
Jade is an ornamental stone. The term jade is applied to two different metamorphic rocks that are made up of different silicate minerals: * Nephrite consists of a microcrystaline interlocking fibrous matrix of the calcium, magnesium-iron rich amphibole mineral series tremolite (calcium-magnesium)-ferroactinolite (calcium-magnesium-iron).
The middle member of this series with an intermediate composition is called actinolite (the silky fibrous mineral form is one form of asbestos). The higher the iron content the greener the colour.
Jadeite is a sodium- and aluminium-rich pyroxene. The gem form of the mineral is a microcrystaline interlocking crystal matrix. The English word jade (as well as the English word "jadeite") is derived (via French l'ejade and Latin ilia from the Spanish term piedra de ijada (first recorded in 1565) or "loin stone", from its reputed efficacy in curing ailments of the loins and kidneys. Nephrite is derived from lapis nephriticus, the Latin version of the Spanish piedra de ijada.