Bronze Vessels in Xia Dynasty
Time:(From about 2100 B.C. to 1600 B.C. )
Location of Capital: Western part of Henan and the Northern part of Shaanxi.
Emperors: 16 emperors, including Qi, Tai Kang, Shao Kang Zhongxing, Kong Jia and Jie and so on.
Replaced by: Shang Dynasty
Archaeologists have uncovered urban sites, bronze implements, and tombs that point to the possible existence of the Xia dynasty at locations cited in ancient Chinese historical texts. There exists a debate as to whether or not Erlitou culture was the site of the Xia dynasty. Radiocarbon dating places the site at ca. 2100 to 1800 BC, providing physical evidence of the existence of a state contemporaneous with and possibly equivalent to the Xia Dynasty as described in Chinese historical works.
In 1959, a site located in the city of Yanshi was excavated containing large palaces that some archaeologists have attributed as capital of the Xia Dynasty. Unlike the oracle bones of the Shang Dynasty, the historical works which were published later that mention the Xia dynasty, had no written records dated to help confirm the Xia period's name of the dynasty and its sovereigns, as those recorded in Sima Qian's Shiji. Through the 1960s and 1970s, archaeologists have uncovered urban sites, bronze implements, and tombs in the same locations cited in ancient Chinese historical texts regarding Xia; at a minimum, the Xia Dynasty marked an evolutionary stage between the late neolithic cultures and the typical Chinese urban civilization of the Shang Dynasty.