Time:(1.7 million years - the 21st century BC)
Location of Capital:
Emperors: Shun, Yao, Yu
Replaced by:Xia Dynasty
In legend, his wife Léi Zǔ taught the Chinese how to weave silk from silkworms, and his historian Cāng Jié created the first Chinese characters. His conception was supposed to have been signaled by a thunderclap on a clear day by the Heavens. Legend says that Huangdi became the leader of his tribe which bore the totem of a bear (Youxiong 有熊, lit. possess bears). His tribe went to war with a neighboring tribe bearing the totem of a bull, headed by Yandi. Huangdi, through his superior military and leadership skills won the war and subdued Yandi's tribe. The two tribes united and became one. Legend then says that the Chinese civilization began with these two tribes. Some sources name Yandi as a brother or half-brother. Huangdi's people were then threatened by a tribe under the leadership of Chi You, who was said to have magical powers and had 81 brothers, each having 4 eyes and 8 arms wielding terrible sharp weapons in every hand. Huangdi called upon 8 neighboring tribes to join forces with him and sent the combined army to meet Chi You and his brothers. The two great armies fought for days without a clear winner. Just as Huangdi's army began to turn the tide of battle, Chi You breathed out a thick fog and obscured the sunlight.
Huangdi's army fell into disarray and could not find its way out of the battlefield. At this critical moment, Huangdi invented the South Pointing Chariot, and ordered its construction on the battlefield. With the South Pointing Chariot, Huangdi was able to lead his army out of the fog. Chi You then conjured up a heavy storm. Huangdi then called upon the gods who blew away the storm clouds and cleared the battlefield. Huangdi then was able to defeat Chi You and his tribe once and for all. With this great victory, Huangdi not only safeguarded his own tribe, but the tribes of his allies.
The nine Tribes joined together as one tribe under the leadership of Huangdi. Huangdi is said to have ruled for a hundred years. He was said to have had 25 children, 14 of whom were sons. Of these 14 sons, 12 chose last names for themselves. It is also said that all the noble families of the first 3 dynasties of China, Xia, Shang, and Zhou were direct descendants of Huangdi. When Huangdi had lived for over a hundred years, he arranged his worldly affairs with his ministers, and prepared for his journey to the Heavens. One version said a Dragon came down from the Heaven and took Huangdi away. Another version said Huangdi himself turned into half-man and half Dragon and flew away. The South-Pointing Chariot was said to have been invented in the time of Huangdi. This was a two-wheeled war chariot that had a pole in the center of the carriage. A small figurine stood on top of the pole. A set of gears connected the two wheels to the pole, so that no matter which way the chariot turned, the figurine on the pole always pointed at a preset direction, usually South. The South-Pointing Chariot did not require magnetism to work, and in models was depicted as the earliest form of the differential gearing system found in modern automobile transmission systems.
Huangdi is also said to have played a part in the creation of the Guqin, together with Fuxi and Shennong, and to have invented the earliest form of the Chinese calendar, and its current sexagenary cycles are counted based on his reign. Huang Ti captured Bai Ze atop Mount Dongwang. The beast described to him all the 11,520 types of monsters, shapeshifters, demons, and spirits in the world. Huang Ti's retainer recorded this in pictures, which later became the book "Bai Ze Tu", which no longer exists. In legend, Ling Lun gave the emperor flutes tuned to the sounds of birds, which is said to be the foundation of Chinese traditional music.